Question: What is the ruling of the learned Ulama in this case: What time is the zawaal in summer and what time is it in winter? Now if someone reads Zohr Salaah before twelve noon in summer, when according to calculations zawaal is before twelve noon, will the Namaaz be legitimate or not? Please present an answer that is well supported.
The Answer: According to the sundial, it is such that zawaal is always at twelve noon. Neither does it show it to be before or after. As per the normal watch, then with the exception of four in our town namely the 16th of April, the 15th of June, 1st of September and 25th of December, zawaal is never exactly at twelve noon on any other day. The movement of the watch is the same every day and the movement of the sun is never the same. The elevation from the 4th of July going towards the decline on the 3rd of January is very fast that every day that it passes the curve more than the day before and this daily increase is also not consistent, actually the next increase is more than that which has passed, until that time, that if it reaches a decline at extreme velocity (quickness). Then from the decline position on the 4th of January up to the elevation on the 3rd of July, the movement becomes slow that daily, it passes the bow slower than the day before and the daily slow motion also does not remain the same, but the coming day is slower than the day before until it reaches its height and becomes extremely delayed (slow) and then the same rotation starts again. Now, in India, since we generally go in accordance with the railway time, even these four are not consistent. Hence in the eastern parts of the country, depending on the difference of the longitudes, all the adjustments will be defective (inconclusive) and in the western parts of the country all the adjustments will be increased, for e.g. if the actual time of the city is given, then verily these four will be equal, where the zawaal according to the sundial and the pocket watch, will be exactly at twelve noon and if the time is calculated through the railway time, then according to the difference of longitudes all the adjustments will increase by 12 minutes and 12 seconds. Now from the four days, the two that were exactly at twelve noon for zawaal will now show zawaal to be at 12 hundred hours 12 minutes and 12 seconds (in other words 12 minutes and 12 seconds after 12 noon). And this is based on our theory.
For the sake of benefit an astronomical table showing the actual Nisfun Nihaar (when the sun is at its peak) and the beginning of Zuhr in Bareilly is being presented with the seconds, which will be sufficient for a very long period of time. This is based on railway time as it is the time that is common today. If 12 minutes is deducted from the times given, then one will get the actual times in Bareilly (Shareef).
Even the times for the beginning of Zohr Salaah can be derived from this chart by either adding or subtracting to or from the time and this will serve as an excellent table for years to come. One can not just rely on the 12 noon as per ones watch (in the case of defining zawaal) If one reads his zohr after Nisfun Nihaar then the Namaaz is done and if one read before this, then the Namaaz is not valid. On the 28th November according to railway time in Bareilly, nishfun nihaar is at exactly 12 noon and then after this is will be later until on the 1st of February it will be at 12:24 and then it will become less until on the 8th of May it will be at 12:08. It will then gradually become earlier again until on the 7th of October it will be at 12 noon exactly and then slowly it will now become even earlier than 12 noon until on the 24 October, it will end at around 11:56 and then it will start to become later again until on the 28th of November zawaal will be at exactly 12 noon again. Thus from the 7th October until the 28th of November if any person read his Namaaz at exactly 12 noon or just before, but after nishfun nihaar, his Namaaz is valid. However the Namaaz that was read before the proper time commenced is invalid. (The Actual table from the original document is excluded. Ulama can view detail in original)
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